Martinson, D. G. and R. A. Iannuzzi, 1998: Antarctic Ocean-Ice Interaction: Implications from Ocean Bulk Property Distributions in the Weddell Gyre. In: M. Jeffries (Editor), Antarctic Research Series, Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability. American Geophysical Union, Boston, pp. 243-271.
The sea ice distribution in the Antarctic polar oceans is intimately tied to
McPhee, M. G., T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison and D. G. Martinson, 1998: Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: Is perennial sea ice disappearing? Geophysical Research Letters, 25(10): 1729-1732.
During the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) deployment in October, 1997, multiyear ice near the center of the Beaufort Gyre was anomalously thin. The upper ocean was both warmer and less saline than in previous years. The salinity deficit in the upper 100 m, compared with the same region during the Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (AIDJEX) in 1975, is equivalent to surface input of about 2.4 m of fresh water. Heat content has increased by 67 MJ m(-2). During AIDJEX the change in salinity over the melt season implied melt equivalent to about 0.8 m of fresh water. As much as 2 m of freshwater input may have occurred during the 1997 summer, possibly resulting from decreased ice concentration from changes in atmospheric circulation early in the summer, in the classic albedo-feedback scenario. Unchecked, the pattern could lead to a significantly different sea-ice regime in the central Arctic.
Randall, D., J. Curry, D. Battisti, G. Flato, R. Grumbine, S. Hakkinen, D. Martinson, R. Preller, J. Walsh and J. Weatherly, 1998: Status of and outlook for large-scale modeling of atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions in the Arctic. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(2): 197-219.
Arctic air masses have direct impacts on the weather and climatic extremes of midlatitude areas such as central North America. Arctic physical processes pose special and very important problems for global atmospheric models used for climate simulation and numerical weather prediction. At present, the observational database is inadequate to support research aimed at overcoming these problems. Three interdependent Arctic field programs now being planned will help to remedy this situation: SHEBA, which will operate an ice camp in the Arctic for a year; ARM, which will supply instruments for use at the SHEBA ice camp and which will also conduct longer-term measurements near Barrow, Alaska; and FIRE, which will conduct one or more aircraft campaigns, in conjunction with remote-sensing investigations focused on the SHEBA ice camp. This paper provides an introductory overview of the physics of the Arctic from the perspective of large-scale modelers, outlines some of the modeling problems that arise in attempting to simulate these processes, and explains how the data to be provided by the three field programs can be used to test and improve large-scale models.
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