Maslowski, W., B. Newton, P. Schlosser, A. Semtner and D. Martinson, 2000: Modeling recent climate variability in the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(22): 3743-3746.
Dramatic changes in the circulation of sea ice and the upper layers of the Arctic Ocean have been reported during the last decade. Similar variability is modeled using a regional, coupled ice-ocean model. Realistic atmospheric forcing fields for 1979-93 are the only interannual signal prescribed in the model. Our results show large-scale changes in sea, ice and oceanic conditions when comparing results for the late 1970s / early 1980s and the 1990s. We hypothesize that these changes are in response to even larger scale atmospheric variability in the Northern Hemisphere that can be defined as either the Arctic Oscillation or the North Atlantic Oscillation. Agreement between the direction and scale of change in the model and observations, in the absence of interannual forcing from the global ocean thermohaline circulation, suggests that the atmospheric variability by itself is sufficient to produce basin-scale changes in the Arctic Ocean and sea ice system.
Yuan, X. J. and D. G. Martinson, 2000: Antarctic sea ice extent variability and its global connectivity. Journal of Climate, 13(10): 1697-1717.
This study statistically evaluates the relationship between Antarctic sea ice extent and global climate variability. Temporal cross correlations between detrended Antarctic sea ice edge (SIF) anomaly and Various climate indices are calculated. For the sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern equatorial Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean, as well as the tropical Pacific precipitation, a coherent propagating pattern is clearly evident in all correlations with the spatially averaged (over 12 degrees longitude) detrended SIE anomalies ((SIE*)). Correlations with ENSO indices imply that up to 34% of the variance in (SIE*) is linearly related to ENSO. The (SIE*) has even higher correlations with the tropical Pacific precipitation and SST in the tropical Indian Ocean. In addition, correlation of (SIE*) with global surface temperature produces four characteristic correlation patterns: 1) an ENSO-like pattern in the Tropics with strong correlations in the Indian Ocean and North America (r > 0.6); 2) a teleconnection pattern between the eastern Pacific region of the Antarctic and western-central tropical Pacific; 3) an Antarctic dipole across the Drake Passage; and 4) meridional banding structures in the central Pacific and Atlantic expending from polar regions to the Tropics, even to the Northern Hemisphere.
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