Liu, J. P., G. A. Schmidt, D. G. Martinson, D. Rind, G. Russell and X. J. Yuan, 2003: Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 108(C2): doi:10.1029/2001JC001167.
The GISS coupled model is used to investigate the sensitivity of sea ice to each of the following parameterizations: (1) two sea ice dynamics (CF: cavitating fluid; VP: viscous-plastic), (2) the specification of oceanic isopycnal mixing coefficients in the Gent and McWillams isopyncal mixing (GM), and (3) the wajsowicz viscosity diffusion (WV). The large-scale sea ice properties are highly sensitive to sea ice dynamics. With the inclusion of resistance to shear stress, VP captures the major observed sea ice drift features and improves the simulations of sea ice concentrations, thickness, and export through Fram Strait relative to CF. GM significantly improves the simulation of vertical temperature distributions in the Southern Ocean, although it leads to a dramatic reduction of Antarctic sea ice cover. The reduced oceanic isopycnal mixing coefficients lead to Arctic sea ice that tends to be less and thinner in almost the entire Arctic except in the North Pacific and Labrador Sea, while Antarctic sea ice that extends more equatorward throughout the circumpolar regions. The responses of sea ice to WV show an enlargement and thickening of sea ice in the Arctic, within the ice packs around the Antarctic and a reduction and thinning of sea ice in the northernWeddell and Ross Seas. On the basis of these experiments, two composite experiments with the best parameterizations are investigated. The atmospheric responses associated with sea ice changes are discussed. While improvements are seen, there are still many unrealistic aspects that will require further improvements to sea ice and ocean components.
Martinson, D. G. and R. A. Iannuzzi, 2003: Spatial/temporal patterns in Weddell gyre characteristics and their relationship to global climate. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 108(C4): doi:10.1029/2000JC000538.
We examine the spatiotemporal variability of the upper ocean sea ice system of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean subpolar seas (Weddell gyre) and the nature of its covariability with extrapolar climate. To systematically evaluate the sporadic and sparse distribution of subpolar data, we employed an optimal analysis involving empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). The EOFs reveal that the pattern of spatial covariability of Weddell gyre characteristics is dominated by high interannual variability near the northern (circumpolar) rim of the gyre and lesser variability (10-20% of the variance) in the gyre's central core region.
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