Refereed Publications by Yochanan Kushnir
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1. Ballard, T., R. Seager, J.E. Smerdon, B.I. Cook, A.J. Ray, B. Rajagopalan, Y. Kushnir, J. Nakamura and N. Henderson, 2014: Hydroclimate Variability and Change in the Prairie Pothole Region, the “Duck Factory” of North America. Earth Interactions, 18(Paper No. 14): 1-28, DOI: 10.1175/EI-D-14-0004.1. PDF
2. Seager, R., D. Neelin, I. Simpson, H. Liu, N. Henderson, T. Shaw, Y. Kushnir, M. Ting and B.I. Cook, 2014: Dynamical and Thermodynamical Causes of Large-Scale Changes in the Hydrological Cycle over North America in Response to Global Warming. J. Climate, 27: 7921-7948, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00153.1. PDF
3. Seager, R., H. Liu, N. Henderson, I. Simpson, C. Kelley, T. Shaw, Y. Kushnir and M. Ting, 2014: Causes of Increasing Aridification of the Mediterranean Region in Response to Rising Greenhouse Gases. J. Climate, 27: 4655-4675, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00446.1. PDF
4. Camargo, S. J., M. F. Ting and Y. Kushnir, 2013: Influence of local and remote SST on North Atlantic tropical cyclone potential intensity. Climate Dynamics, 40(5-6): 1515-1529, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1536-4. ABS
5. Goddard, L., A. Kumar, A. Solomon, D. Smith, G. Boer, P. Gonzalez, V. Kharin, W. Merryfield, C. Deser, S. J. Mason, B. P. Kirtman, R. Msadek, R. Sutton, E. Hawkins, T. Fricker, G. Hegerl, C. A. T. Ferro, D. B. Stephenson, G. A. Meehl, T. Stockdale, R. Burgman, A. M. Greene, Y. Kushnir, M. Newman, J. Carton, I. Fukumori and T. Delworth, 2013: A verification framework for interannual-to-decadal predictions experiments. Climate Dynamics, 40(1-2): 245-272. ABS
6. Nakamura, J., U. Lall, Y. Kushnir, A.W. Robertson and R. Seager, 2013: Dynamical Structure of Extreme Floods in the U.S. Midwest and the United Kingdom. J. Hydrometeor., 14: 485-504. PDF
7. Zhang, R., T.L. Delworth, R. Sutton, D.L.R. Hodson, K.W. Dizon, I.M. Held, Y. Kushnir, J. Marshall, Y. Ming, R. Msadek, J. Robson, A.J. Rosati, M. Ting and G.A. Vecchi, 2013: Have Aerosols caused the observed Atlantic Multidecadal Variability? J. Atmos. Sci., 70: 1135-1144, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-12-0331.1. PDF
8. Ziv, B., Y. Kushnir, J. Nakamura, N. Naik(Henderson) and T. Harpaz, 2013: Coupled climate model simulations of Mediterranean winter cyclones and large-scale flow patterns. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13: 779-793, doi:10.5194/nhess-13-779-2013.
9. Kelley, C., M. Ting, R. Seager and Y. Kushnir, 2012: Mediterranean precipitation climatology, season cycle, and trend as simulated by CMIP5. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39: L21703, doi:10.1029/2012GL053416. PDF
10. Ruff, T.W., Y. Kushnir and R. Seager, 2012: Comparing Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century Patterns of Interannual Precipitation Variability over the Western United States and Northern Mexico. J. Hydrometeorology, 13: 366-378, DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-10-05003.1. PDF
11. Seager, R., N. Pederson, Y. Kushnir and J. Nakamura, 2012: The 1960s Drought and the Subsequent Shift to a Wetter Climate in the Catskill Mountains Region of the New York City Watershed. J. Climate, 25: 6721-6742, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00518.1. PDF
12. Kelley, C., M. Ting, R. Seager and Y. Kushnir, 2011: The relative contributions of radiative forcing and internal climate variability to the late 20th Century drying of the Mediterranean region. Clim. Dyn.: DOI 10.1007/s00382-011-1221-z. PDF
13. Ting, M., Y. Kushnir, R. Seager and L. Cuihua, 2011: Robust features of Atlantic multi‐decadal variability and its climate impacts. Geo. Res. Letters, 38(L17705): doi:10.1029/2011GL048712. PDF
14. Kushnir, K. and M. Stein, 2010: North Atlantic influence on 19th-20th century rainfall in the Dead Sea watershed, teleconnections with the Sahel, and implication for Holocene climate fluctuations. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29: doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.09.004. PDF
15. Kushnir, Y., R. Seager, M. Ting, N. Naik(Henderson) and J. Nakamura, 2010: Mechanisms of Tropical Atlantic SST Influence on North American Precipitation Variability. Journal of Climate, 23: DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3172.1. PDF
16. Seager, R. , N. Naik(Henderson), W. Baethgen, A. Robertson, Y. Kushnir, J. Nakamura and S. Jurburg, 2010: Tropical oceanic causes of interannual to multidecadal precipitation variability across southeast South America over the past century. Journal of Climate, 23: DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3578.1. PDF
17. Seager, R., N. Naik(Henderson), M. Ting, M. A. Cane, N. Harnik and Y. Kushnir, 2010: Adjustment of the atmospheric circulation to tropical Pacific SST anomalies: Variability of transient eddy propagation in the Pacific-North America sector. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 136: 277-296. DOI: 10.1002/qj.588. PDF ABS
18. Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, J. Nakamura, M. Ting and N. Naik(Henderson), 2010: Northern hemisphere winter snow anomalies: ENSO, NAO and the winter of 2009/10. Geo. Res. Letters, 37(L14703): doi:10.1029/2010GL043830. PDF
19. Tourre, Y.M., S. Paz, Y. Kushnir and W.B. White, 2010: Low-frequency climate variability in the Atlantic basin during the 20th century. Atmos. Sci. Let, 11: DOI: 10.1002/asl.265. PDF
20. Huang, H. P. , A. W. Robinson, Y. Kushnir and S. Peng, 2009: Hindcasts of tropical Atlantic SST gradient and South American precipitation: the influences of the ENSO forcing and the Atlantic preconditioning. Journal of Climate, 22(9): 2405-2421. ABS
21. Huang, H. P., A. W. Robertson, Y. Kushnir and S. L. Peng, 2009: Hindcasts of Tropical Atlantic SST Gradient and South American Precipitation: The Influences of the ENSO Forcing and the Atlantic Preconditioning. Journal of Climate, 22(9): 2405-2421. ABS
22. Ihara, C. and Y. Kushnir, 2009: Change of mean midlatitude westerlies in 21st century climate simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, 36: -. ABS
23. Ihara, C., Y. Kushnir, M. A. Cane and V. H. de la Pena, 2009: Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming. Journal of Climate, 22(10): 2678-2693. PDF ABS
24. Karnauskas, K. B., R. Seager, A. Kaplan, Y. Kushnir and M. A. Cane, 2009: Observed Strengthening of the Zonal Sea Surface Temperature Gradient across the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Journal of Climate, 22(16): 4316-4321. PDF ABS
25. Nakamura, J., U. Lall, Y. Kushnir and S. J. Camargo, 2009: Classifying North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks by Mass Moments. Journal of Climate, 22(20): 5481-5494. PDF ABS
26. Ting, M. F., Y. Kushnir, R. Seager and C. H. Li, 2009: Forced and Internal Twentieth-Century SST Trends in the North Atlantic. Journal of Climate, 22(6): 1469-1481. PDF ABS
27. Ihara, C., Y. Kushnir and M. A. Cane, 2008: July droughts over Homogeneous Indian Monsoon region and Indian Ocean dipole during El Niño events. International Journal of Climatology, 28(13): 1799-1805. PDF ABS
28. Ihara, C., Y. Kushnir and M. A. Cane, 2008: Warming trend of the Indian Ocean SST and Indian Ocean dipole from 1880 to 2004. Journal of Climate, 21(10): 2035-2046. PDF ABS
29. Ihara, C., Y. Kushnir, M. A. Cane and A. Kaplan, 2008: Timing of El Niño-related warming and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Journal of Climate, 21(11): 2711-2719. PDF ABS
30. Robinson, L. F., V. H. de la Pena and Y. Kushnir, 2008: Detecting shifts in correlation and variability with application to ENSO-monsoon rainfall relationships. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 94(3-4): 215-224. DOI: 10.1007/s00704-007-0351-z. PDF ABS
31. Seager, R., R. Burgman, Y. Kushnir, A. Clement, E. Cook, N. Naik(Henderson) and J. Miller, 2008: Tropical Pacific Forcing of North American Medieval Megadroughts: Testing the Concept with an Atmosphere Model Forced by Coral-Reconstructed SSTs. Journal of Climate, 21(23): 6175-6190. PDF ABS
32. Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, M. Ting, M. Cane, N. Naik(Henderson) and J. Miller, 2008: Would advance knowledge of 1930s SSTs have allowed prediction of the dust bowl drought? Journal of Climate, 21(13): 3261-3281. PDF ABS
33. Sveinsson, O. G. B., U. Lall, J. Gaudet, Y. Kushnir, S. Zebiak and V. Fortin, 2008: Analysis of climatic states and atmospheric circulation patterns that influence Quebec spring streamflows. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 13(6): 411-425. ABS
34. Sveinsson, O. G. B., U. Lall, V. Fortin, L. Perrault, J. Gaudet, S. Zebiak and Y. Kushnir, 2008: Forecasting spring reservoir inflows in Churchill Falls basin in Quebec, Canada. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 13(6): 426-437. ABS
35. Ihara, C., Y. Kushnir, M. A. Cane and V. H. De la Pena, 2007: Indian summer monsoon rainfall and its link with ENSO and Indian Ocean climate indices. International Journal of Climatology, 27(2): 179-187. PDF ABS
36. Seager, R., M. F. Ting, I. Held, Y. Kushnir, J. Lu, G. Vecchi, H. P. Huang, N. Harnik, A. Leetmaa, N. C. Lau, C. H. Li, J. Velez(Nakamura) and N. Naik(Henderson), 2007: Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science, 316(5828): 1181-1184. PDF ABS
37. Seager, R., N. Graham, C. Herweijer, A. L. Gordon, Y. Kushnir and E. Cook, 2007: Blueprints for Medieval hydroclimate. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(19-21): doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.04.020, pp. 2322-2336. PDF ABS
38. Biasutti, M., A. H. Sobel and Y. Kushnir, 2006: AGCM precipitation biases in the tropical Atlantic. Journal of Climate, 19(6): 935-958. ABS
39. Hurrell, J. W., M. Visbeck, A. Busalacchi, R. A. Clarke, T. L. Delworth, R. R. Dickson, W. E. Johns, K. P. Koltermann, Y. Kushnir, D. Marshall, C. Mauritzen, M. S. McCartney, A. Piola, C. Reason, G. Reverdin, F. Schott, R. Sutton, I. Wainer and D. Wright, 2006: Atlantic climate variability and predictability: A CLIVAR perspective. Journal of Climate, 19(20): 5100-5121. ABS
40. Kushnir, Y., W. A. Robinson, P. Chang and A. W. Robertson, 2006: The physical basis for predicting Atlantic sector seasonal-to-interannual climate variability. Journal of Climate, 19(23): 5949-5970. PDF ABS
41. Ziv, B., U. Dayan, Y. Kushnir, C. Roth and Y. Enzel, 2006: Regional and global atmospheric patterns governing rainfall in the southern Levant. International Journal of Climatology, 26(1): 55-73. ABS
42. Honda, M., Y. Kushnir, H. Nakamura, S. Yamane and S. E. Zebiak, 2005: Formation, mechanisms, and predictability of the Aleutian-Icelandic low seesaw in ensemble AGCM simulations. Journal of Climate, 18(9): 1423-1434. ABS
43. Huang, H. P., A. W. Robertson and Y. Kushnir, 2005: Atlantic SST gradient and the influence of ENSO. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(20): doi:10.1029/2005GL023944. ABS
44. Huang, H. P., R. Seager and Y. Kushnir, 2005: The 1976/77 transition in precipitation over the Americas and the influence of tropical sea surface temperature. Climate Dynamics, 24(7-8): 721-740. PDF ABS
45. Seager, R., N. Harnik, W. A. Robinson, Y. Kushnir, M.F. Ting, H. P. Huang and J. Velez(Nakamura), 2005: Mechanisms of ENSO-forcing of hemispherically symmetric precipitation variability. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 131(608): 1501-1527. PDF ABS
46. Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, C. Herweijer, N. Naik(Henderson) and J. Velez(Nakamura), 2005: Modeling of tropical forcing of persistent droughts and pluvials over western North America: 1856-2000. Journal of Climate, 18(19): 4065-4088. PDF ABS
47. Seager, R., A. R. Karspeck, M. A. Cane, Y. Kushnir, A. Giannini, A. Kaplan, B. Kerman and J. Velez(Nakamura), 2004: Predicting Pacific decadal variability. In: C. Wang, S.P. Xie and J.A. Carton (Editors), Earth Climate: The ocean-atmosphere interaction, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, pp. 105-120. PDF
48. Gat, J. R., B. Klein, Y. Kushnir, W. Roether, H. Wernli, R. Yam and A. Shemesh, 2003: Isotope composition of air moisture over the Mediterranean Sea: an index of the air-sea interaction pattern. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 55(5): 953-965. ABS
49. Kaplan, A., M. A. Cane and Y. Kushnir, 2003: Reduced space approach to the optimal analysis interpolation of historical marine observations: Accomplishments, difficulties, and prospects, Advances in the Applications of Marine Climatology: The Dynamic Part of the WMO Guide to the Applications of Marine Climatology, WMO/TD-1081. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 199-216. LINK PDF ABS
50. Seager, R., N. Harnik, Y. Kushnir, W. Robinson and J. Miller(Nakamura), 2003: Mechanisms of hemispherically symmetric climate variability. Journal of Climate, 16(18): 2960-2978. PDF ABS
51. Visbeck, M. , E. Chassignet, R. Curry, T. Delworth, B. Dickson and G. Krahmann, 2003: The Ocean's Response to North Atlantic Oscillation Variability. In: J. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen and M. Visbeck (Editors), The North Atlantic Oscillation. AGU monograph, Washington, pp. 113-146. PDF
52. Chiang, J. C. H., Y. Kushnir and A. Giannini, 2002: Deconstructing Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone variability: Influence of the local cross-equatorial sea surface temperature gradient and remote forcing from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 107(D1-D2): doi:10.1029/2000JD000307. ABS
53. Kushnir, Y., R. Seager, J. Miller(Nakamura) and J. C. H. Chiang, 2002: A simple coupled model of tropical Atlantic decadal climate variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(23): 2133. PDF ABS
54. Kushnir, Y., W. A. Robinson, I. Blade, N. M. Hall, S. Peng and R. Sutton, 2002: Atmospheric GCM response to extratropical SST anomalies: Synthesis and evaluation. Journal of Climate, 15(16): 2233-2256. PDF ABS
55. Ben-Gai, T., A. Bitan, A. Manes, P. Alpert and Y. Kushnir, 2001: Temperature and surface pressure anomalies in Israel and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 69(3-4): 171-177. ABS
56. Giannini, A., J. C. H. Chiang, M. A. Cane, Y. Kushnir and R. Seager, 2001: The ENSO teleconnection to the tropical Atlantic Ocean: Contributions of the remote and local SSTs to rainfall variability in the tropical Americas. Journal of Climate, 14(24): 4530-4544. PDF ABS
57. Giannini, A., M. A. Cane and Y. Kushnir, 2001: Interdecadal changes in the ENSO teleconnection to the Caribbean region and the North Atlantic oscillation. Journal of Climate, 14(13): 2867-2879. PDF ABS
58. Giannini, A., Y. Kushnir and M. A. Cane, 2001: Seasonality in the impact of ENSO and the North Atlantic high on Caribbean rainfall. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B-Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere, 26(2): 143-147. PDF ABS
59. Hurrell, J. W., Y. Kushnir and M. Visbeck, 2001: Climate - The North Atlantic oscillation. Science, 291(5504): 603-+.
60. Marshall, J., Y. Kushnir, D. Battisti, P. Chang, A. Czaja, R. Dickson, J. Hurrell, M. McCartney, R. Saravanan and M. Visbeck, 2001: North Atlantic climate variability: Phenomena, impacts and mechanisms. International Journal of Climatology, 21(15): 1863-1898. PDF ABS
61. Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, N. H. Naik(Henderson), M. A. Cane and J. Miller(Nakamura), 2001: Wind-driven shifts in the latitude of the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension and generation of SST anomalies on decadal timescales. Journal of Climate, 14(22): 4249-4265. PDF ABS
62. Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, P. Chang, N. H. Naik(Henderson), J. Miller(Nakamura) and W. Hazeleger, 2001: Looking for the role of the ocean in tropical Atlantic decadal climate variability. Journal of Climate, 14(5): 638-655. LINK PDF ABS
63. Tourre, Y. M., B. Rajagopalan, Y. Kushnir, M. Barlow and W. B. White, 2001: Patterns of coherent decadal and interdecadal climate signals in the Pacific Basin during the 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters, 28(10): 2069-2072. PDF ABS
64. Chiang, J. C. H., Y. Kushnir and S. E. Zebiak, 2000: Interdecadal changes in eastern Pacific ITCZ variability and its influence on the Atlantic ITCZ. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(22): 3687-3690. ABS
65. Giannini, A., Y. Kushnir and M. A. Cane, 2000: Interannual variability of Caribbean rainfall, ENSO, and the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Climate, 13(2): 297-311. PDF ABS
66. Kaplan, A., Y. Kushnir and M. A. Cane, 2000: Reduced space optimal interpolation of historical marine sea level pressure: 1854-1992. Journal of Climate, 13(16): 2987-3002. LINK PDF ABS
67. Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, M. Visbeck, N. H. Naik(Henderson), J. Miller(Nakamura), G. Krahmann and H. Cullen, 2000: Causes of Atlantic Ocean climate variability between 1958 and 1998. Journal of Climate, 13(16): 2845-2862. LINK PDF ABS
68. Chen, D. K., W. T. Liu, S. E. Zebiak, M. A. Cane, Y. Kushnir and D. Witter, 1999: Sensitivity of the tropical Pacific Ocean simulation to the temporal and spatial resolution of wind forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 104(C5): 11261-11271. PDF ABS
69. Kushnir, Y., 1999: Climatology - Europe's winter prospects. Nature, 398(6725): 289-+.
70. Tourre, Y. M., B. Rajagopalan and Y. Kushnir, 1999: Dominant patterns of climate variability in the Atlantic Ocean during the last 136 years. Journal of Climate, 12(8): 2285-2299. PDF ABS
71. Tourre, Y. M., Y. Kushnir and W. B. White, 1999: Evolution of interdecadal variability in sea level pressure, sea surface temperature, and upper ocean temperature over the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29(7): 1528-1541. ABS
72. Kaplan, A., M. A. Cane, Y. Kushnir, A. C. Clement, M. B. Blumenthal and B. Rajagopalan, 1998: Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856-1991. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 103(C9): 18567-18589. LINK PDF ABS
73. Martinson, D. G. , D. S. Battisti, R. S. Bradley, J. E. Cole, R. A. Fine, M. Ghil, Y. Kushnir, S. Manabe, M. S. McCartney, M. P. McCormick, M. J. Prather, E. S. Sarachik, P. Tans, L. G. Thompson and M. Winton, 1998: Decade-to-century scale climate variability and change: a science strategy. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C, 142 pp.
74. Rajagopalan, B., Y. Kushnir and Y. M. Tourre, 1998: Observed decadal midlatitude and tropical Atlantic climate variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 25(21): 3967-3970. PDF ABS
75. Uvo, C. B., C. A. Repelli, S. E. Zebiak and Y. Kushnir, 1998: The relationships between tropical Pacific and Atlantic SST and northeast Brazil monthly precipitation. Journal of Climate, 11(4): 551-562. ABS
76. Cane, M. A., A. C. Clement, A. Kaplan, Y. Kushnir, D. Pozdnyakov, R. Seager, S. E. Zebiak and R. Murtugudde, 1997: Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends. Science, 275(5302): 957-960. PDF ABS
77. Kaplan, A., Y. Kushnir, M. A. Cane and M. B. Blumenthal, 1997: Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets: 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 102(C13): 27835-27860. LINK PDF ABS
78. Kushnir, Y., V. J. Cardone, J. G. Greenwood and M. A. Cane, 1997: The recent increase in North Atlantic wave heights. Journal of Climate, 10(8): 2107-2113. PDF ABS
79. Reverdin, G., D. Cayan and Y. Kushnir, 1997: Decadal variability of hydrography in the upper northern North Atlantic in 1948-1990. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 102(C4): 8505-8531. ABS
80. Kushnir, Y. and I. M. Held, 1996: Equilibrium atmospheric response to North Atlantic SST anomalies. Journal of Climate, 9(6): 1208-1220. ABS
81. Seager, R., M. B. Blumenthal and Y. Kushnir, 1995: An Advective Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model for Ocean Modeling Purposes - Global Simulation of Surface Heat Fluxes. Journal of Climate, 8(8): 1951-1964. PDF ABS
82. Seager, R., Y. Kushnir and M. A. Cane, 1995: On heat flux boundary conditions for ocean models. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25(12): 3219-3230. PDF ABS
83. Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal Variations in North-Atlantic Sea-Surface Temperature and Associated Atmospheric Conditions. Journal of Climate, 7(1): 141-157. ABS
84. Kushnir, Y. and N. C. Lau, 1992: The General-Circulation Model Response to a North Pacific SST Anomaly - Dependence on Time Scale and Pattern Polarity. Journal of Climate, 5(4): 271-283. ABS
85. Kushnir, Y. and J. M. Wallace, 1989: Interaction of Low-Frequency and High-Frequency Transients in a Forecast Experiment with a General-Circulation Model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 46(10): 1411-1418.
86. Kushnir, Y. and J. M. Wallace, 1989: Low-Frequency Variability in the Northern Hemisphere Winter - Geographical-Distribution, Structure and Time-Scale Dependence. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 46(20): 3122-3142.
87. Kushnir, Y., 1987: Retrograding Wintertime Low-Frequency Disturbances over the North Pacific-Ocean. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 44(19): 2727-2742.
88. Kushnir, Y. and S. K. Esbensen, 1986: Northern-Hemisphere Wintertime Variability in a 2-Level General-Circulation Model .1. Statistical Characteristics of Short and Long Time-Scale Disturbances. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 43(23): 2968-2984.
89. Kushnir, Y. and S. K. Esbensen, 1986: Northern-Hemisphere Wintertime Variability in a 2-Level General-Circulation Model .2. The Maintenance of Short and Long Time-Scale Disturbances. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 43(23): 2985-2998.
90. Levanon, N. and Y. Kushnir, 1976: Response of Superpressure Balloons to Displacements from Equilibrium Density Level. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 15(4): 346-349.

The database was updated today.

Maintained by: Virginia DiBlasi, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University